Hiệp định TPP- Chương 2: Xử sự quốc gia và thị trường lưu thông hàng hóa/CHAPTER 2 NATIONAL TREATMENT AND MARKET ACCESS FOR GOODS
Section A: Definitions and Scope
Article 2.1: Definitions
For the purposes of this Chapter:
advertising films and recordings means recorded visual media or audio materials, consisting essentially of images and/or sound, showing the nature or operation of goods or services offered for sale or lease by a person established or resident in the territory of a Party, provided that such materials are of a kind suitable for exhibition to prospective customers but not for broadcast to the general public;
commercial samples of negligible value means commercial or trade samples having a value, individually or in the aggregate as shipped, of not more than one U.S. dollar, or the equivalent amount in the currency of another Party, or so marked, torn, perforated or otherwise treated that they are unsuitable for sale or for use except as commercial samples;
consular transactions means requirements that goods of a Party intended for export to the territory of the other Party must first be submitted to the supervision of the consul of the importing Party in the territory of the exporting Party for the purpose of obtaining consular invoices or consular visas for commercial invoices, certificates of origin, manifests, shippers’ export declarations, or any other customs documentation required on or in connection with importation;
consumed means (a) actually consumed; or (b) further processed or manufactured so as to result in a substantial change in the value, form, or use of the good or in the production of another good;
duty-free means free of customs duty;
good(s) means any merchandise, product, article or material;
goods admitted for sports purposes means sports requisites for use in sports contests, demonstrations or training in the territory of the Party into whose territory such goods are admitted;
goods intended for display or demonstration includes their component parts, ancillary apparatus, and accessories;
import licensing means an administrative procedure requiring the submission of an application or other documentation (other than that generally required for customs clearance purposes) to the relevant administrative body as a prior condition for importation into the territory of the importing Party;
Import Licensing Agreement means the WTO Agreement on Import Licensing Procedures;
performance requirement means a requirement that:
(a) a given level or percentage of goods or services be exported;
(b) domestic goods or services of the Party granting a waiver of customs duties or an import license be substituted for imported goods;
(c) a person benefiting from a waiver of customs duties or a requirement for an import license purchase other goods or services in the territory of the Party granting the waiver of customs duties or the import license, or accord a preference to domestically produced goods;
(d) a person benefiting from a waiver of customs duties or a requirement for an import license produce goods or supply services, in the territory of the Party granting the waiver of customs duties or the import license, with a given level or percentage of domestic content; or
(e) relates in any way to the volume or value of imports to the volume or value of exports or to the amount of foreign exchange inflows;
but does not include a requirement that an imported good be:
(f) subsequently exported;
(g) used as a material in the production of another good that is subsequently exported;
(h) substituted by an identical or similar good used as a material in the production of another good that is subsequently exported; or
(i) substituted by an identical or similar good that is subsequently exported; and
printed advertising materials means those goods classified in Chapter 49 of the Harmonized
System, including brochures, pamphlets, leaflets, trade catalogues, yearbooks published by trade
associations, tourist promotional materials and posters, that are used to promote, publicise or advertise a good or service, are essentially intended to advertise a good or service, and are supplied free of charge.
Article 2.2: Scope
Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, this Chapter applies to trade in goods of a Party.
Section: B – National Treatment and Market Access for Goods
Article 2.3: National Treatment
1.Each Party shall accord national treatment to the goods of the other Parties in accordance with Article III of GATT 1994, including its interpretative notes, and to this end, Article III of GATT 1994 and its interpretative notes are incorporated into and shall form part of this Agreement, mutatis mutandis.
2.For greater certainty, the treatment to be accorded by a Party under paragraph 1 means, with respect to a regional level of government, treatment no less favourable than the most favourable treatment that regional level of government accords to any like, directly competitive, or substitutable goods, as the case may be, of the Party of which it forms a part.
3.Paragraph 1 shall not apply to the measures set out in Annex 2-A (National Treatment and Import and Export Restrictions).
Article 2.4: Elimination of Customs Duties
1.Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, no Party may increase any existing customs duty, or adopt any new customs duty, on an originating good.
2.Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, each Party shall progressively eliminate its customs duties on originating goods in accordance with its Schedule to Annex 2-D (Tariff Elimination).
3.On the request of any Party, the requesting Party and one or more other Parties shall consult to consider accelerating the elimination of customs duties set out in the Schedules to Annex 2-D (Tariff Elimination).
4.An agreement between two or more of the Parties to accelerate the elimination of a customs duty on an originating good shall supersede any duty rate or staging category determined pursuant to their Schedules to Annex 2-D (Tariff Elimination) for that good when approved by each Party to that agreement in accordance with its applicable legal procedures. The parties to that agreement shall inform the other Parties as early as practicable before the new rate of customs duty takes effect.
5.A Party may at any time unilaterally accelerate the elimination of customs duties on originating goods of one or more of the other Parties set out in its Schedule in Annex 2-D (Tariff Elimination). A Party shall inform the other Parties as early as practicable before the new rate of customs duty takes effect.
6.For greater certainty, no Party shall prohibit an importer from claiming for an originating good the rate of customs duty applied under the WTO Agreement.
7.For greater certainty, a Party may raise a customs duty to the level established in its Schedule to Annex 2-D (Tariff Elimination) following a unilateral reduction for the year respective.
Article 2.5: Waiver of Customs Duties
1.No Party may adopt any new waiver of customs duties, or expand with respect to existing recipients or extend to any new recipient the application of an existing waiver of customs duties, where the waiver is conditioned, explicitly or implicitly, on the fulfilment of a performance requirement.
2.No Party may, explicitly or implicitly, condition on the fulfilment of a performance requirement the continuation of any existing waiver of customs duties
Article 2.6: Goods Re-entered after Repair or Alteration
1.No Party shall apply a customs duty to a good, regardless of its origin, that re-enters its territory after that good has been temporarily exported from its territory to the territory of another Party for repair or alteration, regardless of whether such repair or alteration could be performed in the territory of the Party from which the good was exported for repair or alteration or has increased the value of the good.1
1 With respect to Canada, this paragraph shall not apply to certain ships of Chapter 89 that have been repaired or altered. These ships will be treated in a manner consistent with the notes associated with the relevant tariff items in Canada’s Tariff Schedule to Annex 2-D (Tariff Elimination).
2.No Party shall apply a customs duty to a good, regardless of its origin, admitted temporarily from the territory of another Party for repair or alteration.
3.For the purposes of this Article, repair or alteration does not include an operation or process that:
(a)destroys a good’s essential characteristics or creates a new or commercially different good; or
(b)transforms an unfinished good into a finished good.
Article 2.7: Duty-Free Entry of Commercial Samples of Negligible Value and Printed
Each Party shall grant duty-free entry to commercial samples of negligible value and printed advertising material imported from the territory of another Party, regardless of their origin, but may require that:
(a) such samples be imported solely for the solicitation of orders for goods, or services provided from the territory, of another Party or a non-Party; or
(b) such advertising materials are imported in packets that each contain no more than one copy of each material and that neither such materials nor packets form part of a larger consignment.
Article 2.8: Temporary Admission of Goods
1. Each Party shall grant duty-free temporary admission for the following goods, regardless of their origin:
(a)professional equipment, including equipment for the press or television, software and broadcasting and cinematographic equipment, necessary for carrying out the business activity, trade or profession of a person who qualifies for temporary entry pursuant to the laws of the importing Party;
(b)goods intended for display or demonstration;
(c)commercial samples and advertising films and recordings; and
(d)goods admitted for sports purposes.
2.Each Party shall, at the request of the person concerned and for reasons its customs authority considers valid, extend the time limit for temporary admission beyond the period initially fixed.
3.No Party may condition the duty-free temporary admission of goods referred to in
Paragraph 1, other than to require that such goods:
(a)be used solely by or under the personal supervision of a national or resident of another Party in the exercise of the business activity, trade, profession, or sport of that person;
(b)not be sold or leased while in its territory;
(c)be accompanied by a security in an amount no greater than the charges that would otherwise be owed on entry or final importation, releasable on exportation of the good;
(d)be capable of identification when imported and exported;
(e)be exported on the departure of the person referenced in subparagraph (a), or within such other period reasonably related to the purpose of the temporary admission as the Party may establish, or within one year, unless extended;
(f)be admitted in no greater quantity than is reasonable for their intended use; and
(g)be otherwise admissible into the Party’s territory under its laws.
4. Each Party shall grant duty-free temporary admission for containers and pallets regardless of their origin, in use or to be used in the shipment of merchandise or goods in international traffic.
(a) For the purposes of this paragraph, container means an article of transport equipment that is fully or partially enclosed to constitute a compartment intended for containing merchandise or goods, is substantial and has an internal volume of one cubic meter or more, is of a permanent character and accordingly strong enough to be suitable for repeated use, is used in significant numbers in international traffic, is specially designed to facilitate the carriage of merchandise or goods by more than one mode of transport without intermediate reloading, and is designed both for ready handling, particularly when being transferred from one
mode of transport to another, and to be easy to fill and to empty, but does not include vehicles, accessories or spare parts of vehicles, or packaging.2
(b) For the purposes of this paragraph, pallet means a small, portable platform, which consists of two decks separated by bearers or a single deck supported by feet, on which goods can be moved, stacked, and stored, and which is designed essentially for handling by means of fork lift trucks, pallet trucks, or other jacking devices.
5. If any condition that a Party imposes under paragraph 3 has not been fulfilled, the Party may apply the customs duty and any other charge that would normally be owed on the good plus any other charges or penalties provided for under its law.
6.Each Party shall adopt and maintain procedures providing for the expeditious release of goods admitted under this Article. To the extent possible, such procedures shall provide that when such a good accompanies a national or resident of another Party who is seeking temporary entry, the good shall be released simultaneously with the entry of that national or resident.
7.Each Party shall permit a good temporarily admitted under this Article to be exported through a customs port other than that through which it was admitted.
8.Each Party, in accordance with domestic law, shall provide that the importer or other person responsible for a good admitted under this Article shall not be liable for failure to export the good on presentation of satisfactory proof to the importing Party that the good has been destroyed within the original period fixed for temporary admission or any lawful extension.
9.Subject to Chapter 9 (Investment) and Chapter 10 (Cross-Border Trade in Services):
(a)each Party shall allow a vehicle or container used in international traffic that enters its territory from the territory of another Party to exit its territory on any route that is reasonably related to the economic and prompt departure of such vehicle or container3
(b)no Party shall require any security or impose any penalty or charge solely by reason of any difference between the customs port of entry and the customs port of departure of a vehicle or container;
2 Each Party shall eliminate customs duties on containers classified in HS 86.09 that have an internal volume of less than one cubic meter at entry into force of this Agreement for that Party as set out in that Party’s Schedule to Annex
2-D (Tariff Elimination).
3 For greater certainty, nothing in this subparagraph shall be construed to prevent a Party from adopting or maintaining highway and railway safety measures of general application, or from preventing a vehicle or container
from entering or exiting its territory in a location where the Party does not maintain a customs port.